Vol. 10 No. 10 (2013): Scientific Journal Referee Issue: 10
The beginnings of higher education in some Arab countries were at the beginning of the nineteenth century, which was limited to seminars in mosques in capitals and metropolises, and some of it amounted to the level of higher education in the schools of Najaf in Iraq, Al-Azhar in Egypt, Al-Zaytuna in Tunisia and Kairouan in Fez, concerned with the sciences Religion and language, including what is concerned with logic and the sciences of speech. As for what was concerned with modern methods, Egypt preceded it during the era of Muhammad Ali, by establishing technical schools for engineering affairs and for teaching languages for the purposes of the army and government offices. He also sent missions to Europe. The interest in these schools was renewed during the era of Ismail, and between what was meant by the Diwan of Schools, the renewal of medical schools and the Muhannad Sanhana School (1866) and the establishment of the School of Administration and Languages as close as possible to the Faculty of Law (1867) and the establishment of Dar al-Uloom (1871) with the graduation of teachers of the Arabic language and religion And at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Higher Teachers’ House was added to it to graduate teachers for social, natural and mathematics sciences, followed by the establishment of the Sharia Judiciary School to graduate judges in the Sharia courts in addition to those who graduated from Al-Azhar, and there was also a French College of Law. All these higher institutes are of a professional nature. Rather, they were established in Cairo in the year (1906) as a private university that deals with university education in a general sense, but it was limited to the Faculty of Arts that combines Arabic literature with the literature of some foreign languages, and philosophy. Its studies included lectures in education and psychology, and it was Some of its professors are foreigners and some are Egyptians, and among those are some Orientalists, headed by the Italian (Nylon), and it is the university that Taha Hussein joined and obtained a doctorate from in the year (1914) with his thesis on (Abi Al-Alaa Al-Ma’arri), and he continued his studies after that in France during the war He graduated from the Sorbonne in Paris with his dissertation on Ibn Khaldun, and returned to Egypt to teach Arabic literature. He was one of the active leaders in this era. That private university, with its Faculty of Arts, became the nucleus for the establishment of an official university in the year (1925) that included other faculties such as law, medicine, and engineering. They are the official colleges, and a college for medical sciences and mathematics was established with them, so it became a comprehensive university for humanities, natural sciences, and applied sciences of a professional nature alike. Fouad I University was named after the King of Egypt, so it was a beacon of modern knowledge at the university level, attended by students from Arab countries from official missions and others. It is a source of intellectual currents that have been taking over their effects in the Arab world, and Lebanon had previously participated with Egypt in establishing an institute for higher education, so that it was established by the efforts of missionary missionaries and the initiative in it was for English missionaries on the American Protestant doctrine, who founded the Syrian Evangelical College (1866) in Arts and Sciences, and it was the first A high institute based on modern methods in Lebanon, and it became its nucleus when it was known as the American University in Beirut, as it included the College of Medicine (1867), the College of Pharmacy (1878), the College of Commerce (1900), and the College of Nursing and Hospital (1902). It was the first university in its modern form to be established in the Arab world, and the Arabic language was The language of instruction was first, then English became the language of education in it since 1880, and the infection spread to the Catholic missionaries from the Jesuits, so they established in 1875 an institute for theological and philosophical sciences, and it was the nucleus of St. Then, other faculties were established, including Medicine (1883), Pharmacy (1888), the School of Oriental Languages (1902), the College of Law (1913), Engineering (1919), and the Institute of Oriental Studies (1937). The language of instruction was French and Latin, except for some oriental lessons. In Egypt, the American College developed and grew up at the turn of the century into the American University in Cairo. The Syrian University in Damascus was established in the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Medicine in the early twenties and was distinguished by making the Arabic language the language of instruction even in the Faculty of Medicine itself. And a college of law was established in Iraq under the name of the Law Office in Baghdad, during the Ottoman era in 1908. It was renewed in the early twenties. In 1923, Dar Al-Mu’aleen Al-Alia was founded with evening studies to prepare secondary school teachers. It became day-time in 1927, and in that year the Faculty of Medicine was established. The high school was in the early thirties, but it soon returned again in 1935, and in that year the Faculty of Law was renewed, and a school of engineering was established during the thirties. After this era, other colleges continued to be established, but they remained dispersed and not included in a single university until 1975 when the University of Baghdad was established, bringing together what was separated from the colleges at that time. Far from it, and wary of student movements in it, Palestine knew the Arab College and the role of teachers. A university was established in Algeria in 1912, but it remained limited to the children of French settlers during this era.
It should be noted that all these institutions, with their number, diversity, levels, and the preparation of their students and faculty members, represent a remarkable shift, especially after the establishment of national governments in the aftermath of the World Civil War, compared to what they were at the beginning of this era.